I ask this question purely out of intellectual or academic interest, now, as I worked around the problem. But I am interested to know why files were invisible one on external NTFS-formatted drive but visible on another.
Time Machine reported that the backup on my NAS had failed and needed to be overwritten. Before I took this drastic step, I copied the backup folder from the NAS onto an external drive plugged into the NAS. The drive came formatted NTFS, and the copy worked flawlessly; all files were clearly visible via the NAS Web interface.
But when I plugged the drive into my M1 Mac (OS 12.6, Monterey), the Time Machine folder wasn’t visible, although the free space on the drive was reduced by 1.5 TB, the size of the TM folder. (However, the default “installation” files on the drive were visible.)
I plugged an older NTFS-formatted drive in and everything on it was visible, so the Mac isn’t at fault.
I ended up moving the TM folder from the iffy drive onto the other NTFS drive (again via the NAS Web interface) and all is well—I can read the backed-up files on the Mac if I need to.
But the question is: Why did the Mac not see the TM folder on the newer drive but it can see it on the older drive? An invisible volume?
That’s quite plausible, and I’m happy to accept it as the likely explanation. The solution in the future is, of course, to reformat new drives in APFS. (I’ve now reformatted the drive, so I can’t search for hidden folders now.)
Can you see the files from a command-line? If you open a terminal and type ls -a /Volumes/volname (replacing “volname” with the name of the drive’s volume), do you see all of its root-directory files/directories?
If the files are visible from the command-line and are not being presented by the Finder, then it could be hidden in one of the ways @mschmitt mentioned. NTFS has its own “hidden” and “system” attribute flags that macOS may also be respecting.
You can tell the Finder to show hidden items by typing CMD-SHIFT-.. You can hide them again by typing it again. (h/t TechRadar). I couldn’t find a button or menu item somewhere to do this (on macOS 11 Big Sur), so this appears to be a truly undocumented command.
If the files are not visible from the command-line at all, then there may be something else going on. We’d need to investigate further to determine what’s going in in that case.
As I mentioned, I’ve now copied the files off the drive (via the browser-based interface to the NAS) onto another (NTFS) drive and reformatted the first one. But I will keep this in mind if it crops up again; it hadn’t occurred to me at the time that there might be hidden folders or files, which I would have known how to make visible if it had ever crosed my mind.
I use CMD-SHIFT-. myself to make hidden files visible, and am glad I stumbled on that trick.
Yes. My NAS (Synology) runs an OS based on I know not what, but it emulates Windows in style and function. As the NAS is a headless computer, it needs a way to control it; that’s provided by a Web interface reached via a 192.168.1.nnn address. This brings up the various options that control the NAS and its various apps. That includes a file viewer, similar in style to Windows, but I assume proprietary.
Through the Web browser, I can list all the files on the NAS and move them around (compared with MacOS, however, it’s very clunky). So I could see that my Time Machine files were all present and correct, even though MacOS couldn’t see them when I plugged the USB drive into my Mac. And this is likely due to settings for hidden files that I wasn’t aware of.
When the drive is mounted in a NAS, macOS doesn’t know (or care) how the volume is formatted. It sees it as a network volume (probably SMB-based, but maybe AFP, NFS or other protocols).
It is the NAS (and whatever operating system it is running) that needs to know how the disk is formatted. Presumably, Synology’s software supports NTFS, which makes the entire scenario possible.
The only thing that surprises me here is that a new external drive came formatted as NTFS. The few I’ve purchased have always come formatted as FAT32 (for drives under 2TB) or exFAT (for larger drives), in order to ensure maximum out-of-the-box OS compatibility.
But, that having been said, I always reformat new drives before I do anything with them. The file system chosen will depend on the size of the drive and how I plan on using it, but I typically use HFS+ (for Mac-only HDDs), APFS (for Mac-only SSDs), FAT/FAT32 (for cross-platform devices where no files will be bigger than 2GB) or exFAT (for cross-platform devices that need to hold huge files, like VM images).