I think people are confusing OS file date formats with the photography EXIF dates. A typical EXIF date looks like:
and should be the camera local clock time. Older versions of EXIF don’t have a standard way to include the time zone, though it’s possible that a manufacturer’s proprietary field could have it. Since mid 2016 version 2.31 (via wikipedia), there are tags to store the time zone: “OffsetTime”, “OffsetTimeOriginal” and “OffsetTimeDigitized” which will generally be the current time-zone offset from UTC (e.g., -7:00 for PDT) for all of them.
Not all cameras/camera OS versions newer than mid 2016 are using the latest EXIF version. Checking through some photos, it looks like Apple upgraded EXIF from 2.21 to 2.31 in iOS 13, so they were years late to the party.
Know your camera and camera settings, and when in doubt about an anomaly and you want to see every bit of metadata for an image or video (many kinds of formats, and more metadata than just EXIF), use exiftool from Phil Harvey. It’s a free command line tool. There are graphical interfaces to view and edit much of it and a lot of photo software such as Graphic Converter uses exiftool under the hood, but I haven’t seen any third party interface show absolutely everything, let alone let you manipulate it, especially in the amazingly rich ways the tool allows. Photos.app shows almost nothing, but the dates it shows should be EXIF dates, not file dates which are usually but not always the same (within a second or so).
It’s an extremely powerful utility, but for a simple list of all metadata, once you install it, all you have to do is type (in Terminal):
If you drag the file to the Terminal window after typing "exiftool ", you don’t have to type the path or filename, and you don’t have to worry about any special characters in the path or name.